Definition of derivative

1) A derivative in chemistry is a compound that results from a chemical reaction where one or more atoms or groups of atoms in the original molecule are replaced with different atoms or groups. This alteration creates a new compound with distinct physical and chemical properties, which can be useful for identification, analysis, or as intermediates in further chemical reactions.

Expanded Definition of Derivative

In chemistry, a derivative is a substance that is created from another compound through a chemical reaction. This process often involves replacing one atom or group of atoms with another, which changes the compound's properties. For example, an ester is a derivative of a carboxylic acid formed by replacing the hydroxyl group with an alkoxy group[1][4]. Derivatives are important in organic chemistry because they can have different reactivity, solubility, boiling points, melting temperatures, and chemical compositions compared to the original substance[6].

Derivatives are not only important for their unique properties but also for their practical applications in analysis. For instance, creating a crystalline derivative of a compound can help identify it by comparing its melting point to known values[1]. This was a common practice before the widespread use of spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, in analytical chemistry, derivatization can be used to convert analytes into species that are easier to detect or analyze, such as making non-volatile compounds volatile enough for gas chromatography[1].

In the context of carboxylic acid derivatives, these include carboxylic acids, esters, amides, and others, which are characterized by the presence of an electronegative atom (like oxygen or nitrogen) bonded to the carbonyl carbon[3]. These derivatives play crucial roles in various biological and synthetic processes.

In chemistry, derivatives are compounds that are formed from other compounds through chemical reactions. These reactions often involve the substitution of one atom or group of atoms with another, leading to a new compound with different properties. Derivatives play a crucial role in various fields of chemistry, including organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and biochemistry. They are used for a wide range of applications, from the synthesis of medicines and industrial materials to the identification and analysis of chemical substances.

Common Examples of Derivatives

Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

Carboxylic acid derivatives are a significant category of chemical derivatives. They are characterized by a carbon atom that's attached to a hydroxyl group (OH) and double-bonded to an oxygen atom. The "R" group attached to the carbon atom varies, determining the specific type of compound. Examples include:

- Esters: Formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in carboxylic acids with another "R" group. Ethyl acetate, used in glues and nail varnish remover, is an example[1].
- Acyl Halides: Here, the hydroxyl group is replaced by a halogen. Benzoyl bromide, used in tear gas, is an example[1].
- Amides: The hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino group. N-methylacetamide, a metabolite, is an example[1].

Benzene Derivatives

Benzene derivatives are another broad class of chemical derivatives, derived from benzene, an aromatic, cyclic hydrocarbon. Examples include:

- Chlorobenzene: Contains one chlorine atom per molecule and is used in the production of herbicides and rubber[1].
- Toluene: A substituted aromatic hydrocarbon with a methyl group attached to a phenyl group[1].

Hydrocarbon Derivatives

Hydrocarbon derivatives are compounds formed from hydrocarbons, where at least one hydrogen atom is substituted with a different atom or group. These include:

- Alcohols: Contain a hydroxyl group (OH) bound to a carbon atom[5].
- Aldehydes and Ketones**: Feature a carbonyl group (C=O), with aldehydes having the carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain and ketones within the chain[5].
- Amines: Contain an amino group (NH2) bound to a carbon atom[5].
- Ethers: Consist of an oxygen atom bound to two carbon atoms[5].
- Carboxylic Acids: Characterized by a carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group bound to the same carbon atom[5].

Derivatives are essential for their unique properties and applications. They allow chemists to modify compounds to achieve desired physical and chemical characteristics, which can be crucial for industrial applications, pharmaceuticals, and research.

source: Citations: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]