Definition of nimby

1) "Not in my back yard!" The attitude that citizens' have against waste disposal facilities (hazardous or non-hazardous) being built in or near their community, even when it is their own community that generates the waste (hence New York city ships much of their waste to Virginia). This mindset slows down permitting processes for waste facilities of all types regardless of the safety measures employed and results from citizens' basic distrust of waste management companies. Related Article
NIOSH|National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States). NIOSH is responsible for undertaking research and developing recommended health and safety standards.
Noble Gasses inert gasses, rare gasses) elements belonging to Group 18 of the periodic table. These elements are very unreactive, however, they are not nonreactive as compounds containing these elements have been synthesized. There are no naturally occurring compounds that are made up of these elements.
Nonmetal|elements that do not exhibit the characteristics of metals. These elements differ markedly from metals in respect to electronegativity and thermal and electrical conductivity. These elements, in general, are poor conductors and have a high electronegativity. This series includes halogens, noble gasses and some of the metalloids (B, Si, As and Te).
Nucleus|The core of an atom that contains at least one proton and one neutron (except for hydrogen (H), which its most common nuclide doesn't have a neutron). This core is positively charged and contains almost all of an atom's mass.
Nuclides (isotopes)|Forms or species of an element that has the same numbers of protons (hence the same atomic number), but different numbers of neutrons, thus different atomic masses. Technically speaking if an element has only one form that is there is no variability in the number of neutrons that exist in the element, it has no isotopes. There are 21 elements that do not very in the number of neutrons in their nuclei.
ONP|Refers to Old Newspapers for recycling.
Orbital|the area around an atom where according to orbital theory the probability of finding an electron is the greatest. More Information
Orbital Theory|the quantum theory matter that combines Schrodinger's wave mechanics and Heisenburg's uncertainty principle and applies this to the behavior and nature of electrons. Orbital theory was formulated in 1926 and has yielded a better understanding of electrons and their critical role in chemical bonding than is possible with Newtonian mechanics.
OSHA|United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This federal agency is responsible for writing and enforcing federal regulations related to workplace safety (Code of Federal Regulations Title 29).
Oxidation State (Oxidation Number)|Either the actual charge of an atom (ion) in a substance, assuming the atom exists as a monatomic ion, or a hypothetical charge assigned by simple rules. 2) The charge an atom would have in a substance if the pairs of electrons in each bond belonged to the more electronegative atom. 3) The number of electrons that must be added or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convert it to the elemental form.

Generally the following rules for assigning oxidation numbers to an atom can be used:

1. In its elementary state the oxidation number of an atom is zero. For instance the oxidation number for chlorine Cl2 or oxygen O2 is zero.

2. All Group IA (alkali metals) elements have an oxidation number of +1 in any compound. All Group IIA (alkali earth metals) elements have an oxidation number of +2 in any compound.

3. Fluorine has an oxidation number of -1 in all of its compounds.

4. Chlorine, bromine and iodine have an oxidation number of -1 in any compound of halogen with a less electronegative element.

5. Usually oxygen has an oxidation number of -2 in a compound. Peroxides, like H2O2 and Na2O2, are the major exceptions to this and in these cases oxygen has an oxidation number of -1.

6. Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in most of its compounds. In hydrides (compounds like NaH), however, in which hydrogen is bonded to metallic elements, hydrogen has an oxidation number of -1.

7. The sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a compound always equals zero. For polyatomic ions, the oxidation numbers of the atoms add up to the charge of the ion.
Periodic Law|The electron configurations of the atoms of the elements vary periodically with their atomic number. Consequently, all properties of the elements that depend on their electron configuration tend also to change with the increasing atomic number in a periodic manner.
Periodic Table|an arrangement of elements in a geometric pattern designed to represent the periodic law by aligning elements into periods and groups. Elements with the same number of orbitals are in the same period and elements with the same number of electrons in the filling orbital and have other similar properties are in the same group.
Periods|While groups are characterized by the number of electrons present in the outer shell, periods are characterized by the number of energy levels (shells) of electrons surrounding the nucleus. Elements in Period 1 has only one shell. As you probably recall, the elements in the first period have a 2 electrons maximum (hydrogen has 1 electron and helium has 2 electrons. As we move to the first group of the second period, we find that lithium, which has the two electrons in the first shell and one in the second. Neon is in Group 18 of Period 2 and therefore has the two electrons in the first shell and eight electrons in the second shell. Sodium starts Period 3 with 11 electrons, two in the first shell, eight in the second shell and one in the third shell. In other words, the element in Group 1 always has one more electron (in a new shell) than the Group 18 element in the previous period.
Peritoneum|Lining of the abdominal organs and cavity.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)|The maximum allowable exposure set by OSHA under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 29 Section 1910, Subpart Z.
pH|A scale ranging from 0 to 14, which is used to determine how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH of a substance is determined by taking the negative of the logarithm of the molar hydrogen-ion concentration (pH=-log [H+]). Pure water has a pH of 7. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acids and substances with a pH greater than 7 are bases.
Photon|discrete concentrations of energy that move at the speed of light, have no rest mass and can only be described in mathematical terms. The quantum unit of electromagnetic radiation that makes up light waves, gamma rays, x-rays etc.
Pleura|The thin membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity.
Pleural Effusion|Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Pleural plaques|areas of fibrosis present on the inner surface of the ribcage and the diaphragm. They may be partly calcified
Placard|a warning sign measuring 10.8 inches on each side and standing on one point (like a diamond), that is placed on the four vertical sides of the truck, rail car, intermodal container or two sides of an intermediate bulk container containing hazardous materials. Placards are required by the USDOT, Transport Canada, Secretariat of Transport (Mexico) and other regulatory agencies around the world when shipping hazardous materials by air, highway, rail or water. More information
Pneumoconiosis|a condition characterized by deposition of large amounts of particulate matter or fibers in the lungs, usually of occupational or environmental origin, and by the tissue reaction to its presence.
Positron|a positively charged particle of antimatter that has the same mass and spin of an electron.
Principal Quantum Number|A positive integer constant that determines the principal energy level of an electron. Sometimes it is designated by the letters K, L or M. Related information
Precision|In measurement indicates a set of measurements that are very similar. They may or may not be close to the true answer.
Proton|A particle of matter with a positive electrical charge and a mass of 1 amu or 1.67E -24g. Although a proton has a mass 1837 times greater than an electron, it is nearly identical in mass to a neutron. Protons are constituents of the nuclei of all elements and an elements atomic number is dependent upon how many protons an element has.
Pulmonary Fibrosis|Chronic inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the pulmonary alveolar walls, usually results in death from oxygen lack or right heart failure.
PURPA (Public Utilities Regulatory and Policy Act)|Created to encourage co-generation and small power producers, PURPA requires investor owned utilities to purchase electrical power from co-generators or small power producers.
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)|The polymerized form of chloroethene or vinyl chloride is a matrix of double the bonded carbon molecule CH2=CHCl. The double bonds break and become single bonds, and the vinyl chloride molecules become bonded to each other. The result is PVC or polyvinyl chloride plastic. The burning of PVC results in the formation of acid rain.
Quantum|The tiniest amount of physical energy that can exist independently, especially a finite amount of electromagnetic radiation.
Quantum (wave) Mechanics|A branch of physics that describes the wave properties of subatomic particles mathematically.
Quantum Number|The basic unit of electromagnetic energy. This characterizes the wave properties of electrons, as distinct from their particulate properties. This determines the principle energy level of an electron.
Radiation (radiant energy)|energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Different forms of radiation comprise the electromagnetic spectrum and are characterized by their different wave frequency and wavelength. Radiation is emitted from matter in the form of photons. The following types of radiation make up the electromagnetic spectrum (in order of decreasing energy and increasing wavelength): cosmic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, UV (ultraviolet) rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwave, radio (Hertzian) waves and electric waves. These electromagnetic waves have no mass and are not electrically charged. The shortest wavelength forms of radiation are most penetrating and are the most damaging to living tissue.
Radioactivity|the spontaneous emission of radiation and atomic particles from unstable elements. Radioactivity is measured in terms of half-lives and is not affected by physical state or chemical combination.
Rare Earth Metals|see Lanthanides
Rare Gasses|see Noble Gasses
RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)|The principle law in the United States that governs the disposal of solid waste and the management of both solid and hazardous waste.
RDF (refuse derived fuel)|a product of a mixed waste processing system from which some recycleable wastes and som non-combustible materials have been removed. The remaining material is used as a fuel to create energy.
Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)|The maximum recommended exposure limit. With the occasional exception in some jurisdictions, REL's are only suggested industry practices and are not enforced by legal regulations (as are PEL's, which are regulated in the U.S. by OSHA under 29 CFR).
Relative Error|the ratio of the absolute error to the exact value.

Relative error =(exact value - observed value)/(exact value)
RTECS|Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)|The maximum exposure limit to a substance based on a 15 minute time weighted average.
Scientific Method|a research method that involves:

1. Making an observation

2. Developing a hypothesis

3. Experimentation

4. Testing and retesting (usually by many other scientists)

5. Developing a theory

6. If theory is proven beyond a doubt (e.g.: the law of gravity) a law may result (rarely does the scientific method reach this degree of acceptance as fact)

Solution|a uniformly dispersed mixture of molecules or ions. The substance being dissolved is the solute, while the substance into which the solute is dissolved is the solvent.
Specific Gravity|the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance. Specific Gravity does not have any units. When water is used as the reference material, specific gravity equals density (without units).

Specific Gravity (SG) = (Density of substance g/ml)/(Density of reference substance g/ml) Notice that g/ml cancels out so that there are no units associated with specific gravity. Specific Gravity then becomes an abstract number.
Specific Heat|the ratio of heat capacity of a substance to the heat capacity of water. Another way of looking at it is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree centigrade or one degree Kelvin (1 J/gC = 1 J/gK).
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)|the standard conditions of 273.15 K and 1 atm (0°C at sea level). used as a baseline for calculations involving quantities that vary with temperature and pressure.
Stoichiometry|the quantitative relationship between chemical substances in a reaction.
Temperature|the thermal state of matter with reference to its ability to transfer heat to other matter. Temperature is distinguished from heat in that heat is the energy that is transferred between matter by radiation, conduction and/or convection. The three most common scales for measuring temperature are centigrade, Fahrenheit and Kelvin.
Thermal Conductivity|see Conduction
Third Ionization Potential|To be defined
Time Weighted Average (TWA)|An exposure limit based on an 8 hour workday and a 40 hour work week.
Transactinides|all elements that follow the Actinides. As with all elements larger than uranium (U), these elements can only be produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. While some of these elements of the transactinides are commonly lumped with metals, not enough information is available for this site to positively conclude whether elements 116 and 118 should be included with the metals or nonmetals. Indeed it may be completely in appropriate to lump these elements with either the metals or nonmetals. Only time will tell what the scientific community will ultimately decide.
Transition Metals|This series include all elements in the sub-series Lanthanides and Actinides of the inner-transition elements and at least part of the sub-series Transactinides, which are the elements following the Actinides series. In general these elements are known for their hardness, high density, high melting point and boiling point and heat conduction although there are exceptions.

These elements all have a d electron as the differentiating electron in their electron configuration. In other words, their outer most electrons are always in the d orbital.

Iron (Fe), for instance, has an electron configuration as follows:

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6

Note that the 4 S orbital actually filled before 3d. The 3d acts as the outer most orbital and is the one involved in reactions.

These metals frequently have more than one oxidation state. Our sample Iron has two oxidation states +2 and +3. These may be represented as Iron II and Iron III or the ferrous ion (+2) and ferric ion (+3). Ferrous and ferric are Latin terms. The symbols for iron II and iron III are Fe II and Fe III as one might expect.

Many of these elements are electropositive enough to replace hydrogen (H) from acid solutions. They also form complex ions and coordinate covalent compounds (in which one element dominates both electrons).

The ions of transition elements tend to be colored, making them easy detect in quantitative analysis. The copper(Cu) ion, for instance is aquamarine and cobalt (Co) is blue.
UN/NA ID (UN Number, NA Number, DOT Number)|A four digit number representing a particular chemical or group of chemicals. These numbers are assigned by the United Nations (UN Numbers), the U.S. Department of Transportation (NA Numbers), or Transport Canada (NA Numbers). These numbers are commonly used throughout the world to aid in the quick identification of the materials contained within bulk containers (such as rail cars, semi-trailers and intermodal containers).
Valence electron potential (-eV)|Provides a quantitative indication of an elements reactivity and is based on the charge of the valence electrons and the ionic radius. It is determined by the equation: (-eV) = kn/r. 'k' is a proportionality factor converting Ångstroms into centimeters and expressing the force exerted by the valence electrons in electron volts which is equated to 14.399. 'n' is the valence. 'r' is the ionic radius in Ångstroms.
Valence electrons|The electrons involved in the ionization of an element.
Vapor pressure|The pressure exerted when a material in its solid or liquid state is in equilibrium with it's gas state. As this is changes as a function of temperature, vapor pressure must be qualified by the relevant temperature.
Volatile|Readily passing into the gas state at a relatively low temperature.
Volatility|The tendency of a material to pass into the gas state at a particular temperature from a solid or liquid state.
Volume|The measurement of anything in 3-demension (cubic magnitude).